Scarfing

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Scarfing

Figure 8: This original drawing shows the keel laid on blocks in the shipyard. The insert drawing shows the scarfing or method of joining the sections of the keel.

Mold Loft

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Mold Loft

Figure 7: This twentieth century photograph shows workers constructing molds from the lines drawn on the floor of a mold loft. This photograph taken at the Sun Shipyard in Chester, PA is from John H. LaDage, Modern Ship-Elements of their Design, Construction and Operation (Centerville: Cornell Maritime Press, 1965), 142.

Ship’s Hull

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Ship's Hull

Figure 6: This original drawing shows the ship’s hull with Joshua Humphreys’ greatest innovation in naval architecture, his diagonal riders. The riders were installed in four sets of three: three fore and aft on both the port and starboard sides of the ship.

Caulker

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Caulker

Figure 5: This original drawing shows a caulker at work. With a special mallet and caulking chisel, he drives the coil or rove of caulk from the bucket at his feet into the seam between the planks.

Pitsawing

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Pitsawing

Figure 4: This original drawing shows a team pitsawing. The workers guide a framing saw which cuts timber to specific dimensions. The worker at the bottom has the least desirable position. The saw dust would constantly fall on his face and eyes.

Shipbuilders of Southwark 1800

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Shipbuilders of Southwark 1800

Figure 11: The shipbuilders of Southwark

1. Joshua Humphreys                         Swanson St., behind SwedesChurch

2. James Owner                                  33 Prime St.

3. Richard Berriman                           7 Mary St.

4. William Bills                                  33 Christian St.

5. Jeremiah Much                               Swanson St., behind SwedesChurch

6. Francis Mitchel                               12 Plumb St. or 384 S. Front St.

7. John Delavau                                  389 S. Second St, between Catherine and Queen

8. Benjamin Hutton                            Water St., between Christian and Queen

9. Thomas Eastburn                            Cox’s Alley, near SwedesChurch

10. Stephen Beasley                           Swanson St., beyond SwedesChurch

11. Richard Thomas                           Second St., between Catherine and Queen

12. George Black                                198 S. Front St.

13. John Turner                                  10 Christian St., near Church Alley

14. Philip McCracken                         57 Queen St.

15. William Art                                  Front St. at Prime

16. Thomas Larkum                           Front St.

17. John Petherbridge                         Second & Queen Sts.

18. William Gamble                           Queen St., between Front and Swanson

19. Benjamin Philips                          Almond St., between Front & Second Sts.

20. Nathaniel Jackson                        Catherine St., between Second and Third Sts.

21. Nathaniel Hutton                          814 S. Front St.

22. Joseph Huddle                              9 Queen St.

23. Paul Beck                                      826 S. Front St.

* The last three entries are designated by modern numeration

** On the 1794 A.P. Folie Map, Prime St. is incorrectly labeled as “Prune” St.

Philadelphia waterfront

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Philadelphia waterfront

 

Figure 3: This 1820 oil painting by Matthew Birch shows the Philadelphia waterfront looking south from the Penn Treaty Tree. In the foreground is a shipyard. In the shipyard workers perform several of the tasks related to shipbuilding. The nearest group of workers shapes timber with hand tools. In the near distance behind them other workers steam bend timber in a furnace. In the far distance in another shipyard a ship lays on its side awaiting repair.

This painting is in the collection at HSP and reproduced by permission.