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Carey, Matthew. A Short History of Algiers, with a concise view of the origin of the    rupture between  Algiers and the United States: to which is added, a copious     appendix containing letters from Captain Penrose, M’Sherry and Sundry other    American captives with a description of the treatment those prisoners             experienced. New York: Evert Duyckinck, 1805.

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Jackson, John W. The Pennsylvania Navy, 1775-1781; the Defense of the Delaware.New     Brunswick: RutgersUniversity Press, 1974.

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Johnstone, Robert M. Jr. Jefferson and the Presidency: Leadership in the Young Republic. Ithaca: CornellUniversity Press, 1977.

Klepp, Susan E. A Demographic History of the City and Its OccupationalGgroups, 1720-1830. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1989.

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Klepp, Susan E. “Encounters and Experiment. The Colonial Period.” in Miller, Randall           M. and Pencak, William, eds. A History of the Commonwealth. University Park:      PennStateUniversity Press and the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum            Commission, 2002.

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Leehey, Patrick, et. al. Paul Revere — Artisan, Businessman, and Patriot: The Man        Behind the Myth. Boston: Paul Revere Memorial Association, 1988

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Lyons, Clare A. Sex Among the Rabble: An Intimate History of Gender & Power in the           Age of the Revolution, 1730-1830. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2006.

Martin, Tyrone, G. A Most Fortunate Ship: A Narrative History of “Old Ironsides.”      Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1997, revised edition.

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Miller, Richard G. Philadelphia—The Federalist City, A Study of Urban Politics, 1789- 1801. Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1976.

______. Minutes of the Common Council of Philadelphia, 1704-1776. Philadelphia:   Crissey & Markley Printers, 1847.

Myers, Albert Cook, ed. Narratives of Early Pennsylvania, West New Jersey and       Delaware, 1630-1707. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1967, reprint of 1912 copyright.

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Sokolow, Michael. Charles Benson: Mariner of Color in the Age of Sail. Amherst:         University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

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Spivak, Burton. Jefferson’s English Crisis: Commerce, Embargo, and the Republican            Revolution. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1979.

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Ver Steeg, Clarence L. Robert Morris: Revolutionary Financier, with an Analysis of his             Early Career. New York: Octagon Books, 1972. Reprint of a 1954 copyright.


Journals & Periodicals:


Adams, Donald R. “Wage Rates in the Early National Period: Philadelphia, 1785-1830.”

Journal of Economic History, Vol. 23 No. 3 (September 1968), 404-426.

Bauer, Jack K. “Naval Shipbuilding Programs, 1794-1861.” Military Affairs, Vol. 29           (Spring 1965), 29-40.

Baumann, Roland M. “John Swanwick: Spokesman for Merchant Republicanism in        Philadelphia, 1790-1798.” PMHB, Vol. 97 (April 1973), 131-182.

Brewington, Marion V. “Maritime Philadelphia, 1609-1837.” PMHB, Vol. 63 (January 1939), 116-117.

Brewington, Marion V. “The Design of our First Frigate.” The American Neptune, Vol. VIII (1948), 11-25.

Chandler, Charles Lyons. “Early Shipbuilding on the River Delaware.” Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 213 (1932), 515-545.

Cross, Arthur L. “On Coppering Ship’s Bottoms.” American Historical Review, Vol.   XXXIII (1927-1928), 79-81.

Crowther, Simeon J. “The Shipbuilding Output of the DelawareValley, 1772-1776.”    APSP, Vol. 117 (1973), 90-104.

Cunningham, Noble E. Jr. “John Beckley: An Early American Party Manager.” William     and Mary Quarterly, Third Series Vol. XIII (1956), 40-52.

Eddy, Richard. “‘…Defended by an Adequate Power’ Joshua Humphreys and the 74-Gun   Ships of 1799.” The American Neptune Vol. 5 (Summer 1991), 173-194.

Eller, Ernest M. “Sea Power in the American Revolution.” U.S. Naval Institute           Proceedings, No. 52 (June 1936), 777-789.

Farley, James. “‘To Commit Ourselves to Our Own Ingenuity:’ Joshua Humphreys and           the Construction of the U.S. United States, 1794-1799.” Explorations in Early American Culture,  Vol. 5 (2001).

Fay, Bernard. “Early Party Machinery in the United States; Pennsylvania in the Election of 1796.” PMHB, Vol. LX (October             1936), 375-390.

Rawle, William Brooke. “The First Tax List for PhiladelphiaCounty, A.D. 1693.” PMHB, Vol. VIII, 1884, 82-105.

Gillingham, Harold E. “Some Colonial Ships Built in Philadelphia.” PMHB, Vol. LVI (1932), 156-157.

Hayes, Frederick H. “John Adams and American Sea Power.” The American Neptune,     Vol. 22 (1965), 35-45.

Humphreys, Col.H.H., USA (Ret.). “Who Built the First United States Navy?” Journal          of American History, 1st Quarter (1916), 49ff.

Jones, Robert F. “The Naval Thought and Policy of Benjamin Stoddert, First Secretary of        the Navy, 1798-1801.” The American Neptune, Vol. 24 (January 1964), 61-69.

Keller, Kenneth W. “Cultural Conflict in Early Nineteenth Century Politics.”         PMHB, Vol. CX No. 4 (October, 1968), 509-530.

_______. “Letters from the Joshua Humphreys Collection of the Historical Society of   Pennsylvania.” PMHB, Vol. XXX     (1906), 376-378.

Marden, Luis, “Restoring Old Ironside.” National Geographic, Vol. 191, No. 6 (June 1997), 38-53.

Marsh, Philip S. “John Beckley: Mystery Man of the Early Jeffersonians. PMHB, Vol. LXXXII (1948), 59-60.

McCusker, John J. “Sources of Investment Capital in the Colonial Philadelphia Shipping            Industry.” Journal of Economic History, Vol. 32 (March 1972), 147.

Paullin, Charles O. “Early Naval Administration under the Constitution.” U.S. Naval       Institute Proceedings, No. 32 (1906), 1002-1003.

Rilling, Donna. “Sylvan Enterprise and the Philadelphia Hinterland, 1790-1860.”    Pennsylvania History, Vol. 76, No. 2 (Spring 2002).

Roach, Hannah, Benner. “Philadelphia Business, Directory, 1690.” The Pennsylvania Genealogical Magazine, 95-129.

Smelser, Marshall and Davisson, William I. “The Longevity of Colonial Ships.” The     American Neptune, Vol. 33 (January 1973), 16-19.

Smith, Billy G. “The Family Lives of Laboring Philadelphians during the Late Eighteenth    Centuries.” APSP, Vol. 133, No. 2 (1989), 328-332.

Stanton, Elizabeth Brandon. “Builder of the First American Navy.” Journal of American   History, Vol. 2 No. 1 (1908), 101.

Tinkcom, Margaret Bailey. “Southwark, A River Community: Its Shape and Substance.”          APSP, Vol. 114, No. 4, 327-342.

Westlake, Merle T. Jr. “The American Sailing Navy: Josiah Fox – Joshua Humphreys & Thomas Tingey.” The American Neptune, Vol. 59 No. 1 (1999), 21-41.

Westlake, Merle T. Jr. “Josiah Fox, Gentleman, Quaker, Shipbuilder.” PMHB, Vol.    LXXXVIII (1964), 316-327.




Bache’s Aurora and General Advertiser, 1799, HSP.

Brown’s Philadelphia Gazette, 1794-1833, HSP.

Carey’s Daily Advertiser, 1797, HSP.

Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 1896-1800, microprint, HSP.

Finlay’s American Naval and Commercial Register, Nov. 25, 1795 – May 1, 1798,   microcard, HSP.

Freeman’s Journal and Philadelphia Mercantile Advertiser, June 12, 1804 – Dec. 31,           1807, HSP.

Gazette of the United States, 1790-1804, HSP.

Independent Gazette, 1782-1796, microprint, HSP.

Pennsylvania Gazette, June 5, 1799-Oct. 22, 1806, HSP

Porcupine’s Gazette, 1797-1800, microprint, HSP.

Poulson’ American Daily Advertiser, 1800-1839, HSP.

Philadelphia Minerva, 1795-1798, microprint, HSP.

True American and Commercial Advertiser, July 2, 1798-Dec. 31, 1806, HSP.

United States Gazette, April 15, 1789-Dec. 31, 1811, HSP.


Directories and Guides:


Biddle, Clement, The Philadelphia Directory. Philadelphia: James & Johnson, 1791,            photocopy, HSP.

Hogan, Edmund. The Prospect of Philadelphia and Check on the Next Directory.       Philadelphia: Francis and Robert Bailey, 1795, photocopy, HSP.

______. The New Trade Directory for Philadelphia, Anno 1800. Philadelphia: Way and           Groff, 1799, photocopy, HSP.

Stafford, Cornelius W. The Philadelphia Directory for 1800.Philadelphia: William W. Woodward, 1800, photocopy, HSP.

Wilson, Thomas, ed. The Philadelphia Directory and Stranger’s Guide for 1825. Philadelphia: John Bigren, 1825, HSP.


Unpublished Sources:


Joshua Humphreys’ Collection:


Joshua Humphreys, Certificate of Membership in the Society of Shipwrights, Port of Philadelphia, Oct. 3, 1794, Humphreys’ Papers, HSP.

Joshua Humphreys, Correspondence, 1775-1831, 1 vol., Humphreys’ Papers, HSP.

Joshua Humphreys, Day Book, 1784-1813, 1 vol. Humphreys’ Papers, HSP.

Joshua Humphreys, Day Book, 1791-1823, 1 vol. Humphreys’ Papers, HSP.

Joshua Humphreys, Letterbooks, 1793-1835, 3 vols., Humphreys’HSP.

Records of the Building of the United States, 1798-1801, Humphreys’ Papers, HSP.


Merchant Accounts, Journals and Letterbooks:


Allen, Nehemiah, Account Book, 1698-1736, HSP.

Allen, William, Letterbook, 1753-1770, Burd-Shippen-Hubley Family Papers, HSP.

Bathos, John, Letterbook, 1765-1768, HSP.

Bayton, John and Wharton, Damuel, Letterbook, 1758-1760, HSP.

Bonsall, James, Account Book, 1722-1729, HSP.

Coates, Samuel, Day Book, 1729-1737, Coates-Reynell Collection, HSP.

Coates, Samuel, Journal, 1760-1776, Coates-Reynell Collection, HSP.

Coates, Samuel, Letter Book, 1763-1781, Coates-Reynell Collection, HSP.

Coates, Samuel, Personal Receipt Book, 1732-1740, Coates-Reynell Collection, HSP.

Clark, Daniel, Letter + Invoice Book, 1759-1763, HSP.

Claxton Family Papers, 1740-1900, Claxton, Rehn, & Lex Family Papers, HSP.

Clifford, John and Thomas, Account Books, 1759-1766 and 1767-1773, 2 vols.,            Pemberton Papers, HSP.

Denham, Thomas, Ledger, 1726-1729, HSP.

Dickinson, Jonathan, Letter Book, 1715-1721, HSP.

Ellis, Robert, Account Book, 1736-1748, HSP.

Fuller, Benjamin, Letter Book, 1762-1781, HSP.

Greeves, John, Ledger, 1753-1757, HSP.

Hayes, Richard, Ledger, 108-1740, HSP.

Horner, Benjamin, Receipt Book, 1762-1783, HSP.

Hughes, John, Journal, 1767-1773, HSP.

Hunt, John, Letterbook, 1747-1749, HSP.

James, Abel, and Drinker, Henry, Letter Book, 1764-1766, Drinker Papers, HSP.

James, Abel, and Drinker, Henry, Letter Book, 2 vols. 1756-1786, Drinker Papers, HSP.

Levers, Robert, Receipt Book, 1759-1776, HSP.

Marlow, Gregory, Account book, 1676-1703, HSP.

McCall, Samuel, Journal, 1743-1749, Samuel McCall Papers, 1743-1891, HSP.

Meirs, Thomas and Fisher, Samuel, Ledger & Journal, 1769-1795, 2 vols., HSP.

Morris, Samuel, Ledger, 1740-1765, HSP.

Norris, Isaac, Sr. Letterbooks, 1699-1766, 2 vols., HSP

Norris, Isaac, Sr. Account Books, 1705-1761, 2 vol., HSP.

Odgen, Joseph, Ledger, 1749-1755, HSP.

Orr, Gilbert, Dunlap, George, and Glenholme (?), Letterbook, 1767-1769, HSP.

Parish, Isaac, Invoice Book, 1762-1767, Cox-Parrish, Wharton Papers, HSP.

Pemberton, Israel Jr. Papers, 1745, Pemberton Papers, Vol. 3, HSP.

Penrose, Bartholomew, Ship Manifest, West Indies, 1736-1756, PMA

Penrose, James, Shipbuilding Establishment of James Penrose, 1760, PMA.

Penrose, Thomas, Cash Books, 1738-1751, 2 vols. HSP.

Powel, Samuel, Invoice and Daybook, 1748-1750, HSP.

Plumstead, William, Papers, 1726-1731, Plumstead Family Papers, 1726-1890, HSP.

Reynell, John, Daybook, 1728-1731, Coates and Reynell Papers, HSP.

Reynell, John, Daybook, 1732-1734, Coates and Reynell Papers, HSP.

Reynell, John, Ledger, 1634-1736, Coates and Reynell Papers, HSP.

Reynell, John, Letterbooks, 1734-1741, 3 vol., Coates and Reynell Papers, HSP.

Riche´ Thomas, Receipt Book, 1760-1769, HSP.

Shippen, William Allen, Letterbook, 1753-1770, Shippen Family Papers, HSP.

Stamper, John, Letterbook, 1751-1770, HSP.

Swift, John, Letterbooks, 1747-1813, 3 vols. HSP.

Till, William, Letters, 1735-1745, typescript copy, HSP.

Trent, William, Ledger, 1703-1708, HSP.

West, James, Account Book,  HSP.

Wharton, Thomas, Ledger, 1752-1756, HSP.

Willing, Charles, Sr. & Jr., Willing, Thomas, Morris, Robert, Letterbook, 1754-1761,          HSP.

Wister, John, Ledger, 1748-1770, Wister Family Papers, HSP.


Tax Assessment  and Deed Records:


“CountyTaxes, Southwark District.” 1773-1775, PCA.

“Deed Books for the City and County of Philadelphia.” 1684-1805, microfilm, 22 reels,    HSP.

“Tax Assessor’Ledgers, Southwark,” 2 vols., 1789-1793 and 1794-1796, PhiladelphiaCity        Archives.

“Tax List for the city and county of Philadelphia, 1772,” microfilm, HSP.


Maps & Paintings:


Biddle, Michael and Clarkson, Matthew, ed., “Map of Philadelphia,” Nov. 1, 1762, HSP.

Cooper, Peter, “The Southeast Prospect of the City,” Library Company of Philadelphia.

Hardie, James, “Plan of the City of Philadelphia,” 1794, HSP.

Leonhard, T. and Son, “Fac simile of Stephens Map of Philadelphia in 1796,” HSP.

______, “Philadelphia, 1702, Map of Philadelphia,” Stauffer Collection, HSP.

Scot and Allardice, “Plan of the city and suburbs of Philadelphia,” 1795, HSP.

______, “Plan of the District of Southwark in the County of Philadelphia,” 1789, HSP.

Scull, Nicholas, and Heep, George. “Plan of the Improved part of the City surveyed and       laid by the late Nicholas Scull, Surveyor General of the Province of       Pennsylvania,” 1762, HSP.

Varlie, P.C., “Plan of the city and environs,” 1796, HSP.


Theses and Dissertations:

Bric, Maurice J. “Ireland, Irishmen and the Broadening of the late Eighteenth Century    Philadelphia Polity.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, JohnHopkinsUniversity,          1991.

Baumann, Roland M. “The Democratic-Republicans of Philadelphia: The Origins, 1776-     1797.” Unpublished thesis,  PennsylvaniaStateUniversity, 1972.

Carrig, John J. “Benjamin Stoddert and the Foundation of the American Navy.”             Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, GeorgetownUniversity, 1953.

Egnal, Marc. “The Pennsylvania Economy, 1743-1762: An Analysis of Short-run         Fluctuation in the Context of  Long-run Changes in the Atlantic Trading         Community.” Unpublished thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1974.

Henrich, Joseph G. “The Triumph of Ideology: The Jeffersonians and the Navy, 1779-          1807.” Unpublished dissertation, DukeUniversity, 1971.

Rasmusson, Ethel E. “Capital on the Delaware: The Philadelphia Upper Class in           Transition, 1798-1801.” Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, BrownUniversity, 1962.


Southwark Papers:


Finletter, Frances, V. “Southwark and the Delaware River: A History of Southwark.”    Typewritten manuscript, Society Collection, 1967, HSP.

“General Account of the Supervisors for the District of Southwark.” Society            Miscellaneous Collection, HSP

“Journal of the Building Committee of Commissioners Hall.” MSS, HSP.

“Register of District Surveyor.” 2 vol., 1786-1854, PCA.

“Southwark—Lightfoot, Thomas, Survey: ‘one made when Anthony Morris owned the        Property.’” Shuber Collection, HSP.“Southwark, PA: Commissioners Records, 1          789-1842.” MSS, HSP.

“Southwark, Property Titles, 1724-1859.” Deed Collection, HSP.

“Thomas Wharton to William Fisher: Of the Creation of the Borough of Southwark.”    A.L.S. Gratz Collection, Pennsylvania Series Provincial Congress, Case 1, Box            13, HSP.




Dennis, John. “Petition of Philadelphia Shipbuilders.” Petition, Society Collection,

            Box 4a, D.S. HSP.

“Dennis, Mr. (John). To Tench Coxe: Dimensions of Mr. Dennis’ brig.” Tench Coxe    Section, Coxe Papers, Incoming Correspondence, HSP.

Johnson, Amandus, “The Swedes in Pennsylvania, 1641-1682.” Amandus Johnson       Papers, 1897-1974, HSP.

McCusker, John. “The Pennsylvania Shipping Industry in the Eighteenth Century.”        Unpublished MSS, 1973, HSP.

Letter: Penrose, William, “Requesting an Interview on the Subject of Naval Yard.”   Stauffer Collection, Vol. XII, HSP.

Letter: Penrose, William to Dallas, Alexander James, “The Presidential Election of      1800.” George Mifflin Dallas Collection, Alexander James Dallas Papers, HSP.

Letters: Duane, William to Coxe, Tench, Coxe Papers, Incoming Correspondence, HSP.

Penrose, Charles, “Letters Referring to Building of Bridge.” addressed to: Joshua        Humphreys, William Jones and Charles Penrose, Jan. 13, 1820, Uselma Clarke Smith Collection, William Jones Papers, HSP.

Penrose family, “The Philadelphia of Our Ancestors.” Campbell Collection, Vol. 5, 245-          247, HSP.

Prime, Phoebe Phillips. “The Alfred Coxe Prime Directory of Craftsmen.” 4 vols.     complied, microfilmed, and photocopied by Phoebe Phillips Prime, 1960, HSP.

“Shipbuilders on the Delaware River, 1793-1827.” Typed research file compiled by Craig Bruns, curator of collections, ISM.

“Shipbuilders Repository, Appendix 4, The Principal Dimensions and Scantlings.” 1789       edition, rare books collection, ISM.














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